Therefore, we invite you it in them to follow in this reflection covering with us the ways that we search to tread trying to find that one that, in them approached more, of what it could answer to our investigations. Who knows its way would not be this? But, certainly it would have the same objective; that is, to search ways that could contribute so that, the affirmation of the rights of the children and adolescents is interpreted in significant way for specific professionals. 1. THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT 1.1. DESCRIPTION AND CONCEPT OF INFANCY AND ADOLESCENCE the history of infancy possesss a chronological dynamics throughout the times. Leaving of the Average Age, a study carried through for ries (cited for SOBREIRA, 2008), sample that at this time did not have place for infancy. Since very early the child already he was part of the world of the adult, therefore to the seven years of age, the boy was delivers to the man to be educated, learned to mount horses, to shoot and to use the arc and the arrow, also, war tactics. The instruction of the girls was in charge of the mothers, which were created to marry, to have children.

Following the studies of Sobreira (2008), still in the end of the Average Age, children and adults if they mixed in the daily life in meetings of works, strolls, that is, the children participated of the same games and tricks of the adults. Since early, the children learned the professions and worked in workshops. In this period also family notion was not had; the familiar organization is one construto historical and social, constituted gradual through rules established until arriving the monogamous organization. The nuclear family appears with the ascension of bourgeoisie. As Lorenzi (2007), the economically devoid populations were deliver to the cares of the Church Catholic through some institutions, between them the Saints Houses of Mercy.